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Photography Knowledge and Tips 101

Here are 7 photography elements you should know as reprinted from WIKIPEDIA and 4 Tips to help you Shoot Like the Pros as presented by Jason Little of

1. Apeture Stop 

Aperture stopExternal Link is the aperture setting that limits the brightness of the image by restricting the input pupil size, while a field stop is a stop intended to cut out light that would be outside the desired field of view and might cause flare or other problems if not stopped.

2.  f-Stop

In photography, stops are also a unit used to quantify ratios of light or exposure, with each added stop meaning a factor of two, and each subtracted stop meaning a factor of one-half. The one-stop unit is also known as the EV (exposure valueExternal Link) unit. On a camera, the aperture setting is usually adjusted in discrete steps, known as f-stops. Each "stop" is marked with its corresponding f-number, and represents a halving of the light intensity from the previous stop. This corresponds to a decrease of the pupil and aperture diameters by a factor of 1/\scriptstyle \sqrt{2} or about 0.7071, and hence a halving of the area of the pupil.


Most modern lenses use a standard f-stop scale, which is an approximately geometric sequenceExternal Link of numbers that corresponds to the sequence of the powersExternal Link of the square root of 2External Link:

f/1, f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22, f/32, f/45, f/64, f/90, f/128, etc.

Each element in the sequence is one stop lower than the element to its left, and one stop higher than the element to its right. The values of the ratios are rounded off to these particular conventional numbers, to make them easier to remember and write down.

3.  Sunny 16 Rule

An example of the use of f-numbers in photography is the sunny 16 ruleExternal Link: an approximately correct exposure will be obtained on a sunny day by using an aperture of f/16 and the shutter speed closest to the reciprocal of the ISO speed of the film; for example, using ISO 200 film, an aperture of f/16 and a shutter speed of 1/200 second. The f-number may then be adjusted downwards for situations with lower light. Selecting a lower f-number is "opening up" the lens. Selecting a higher f-number is "closing" or "stopping down" the lens.

4.  Depth of Field

Depth of field (DOF), also called focus range or effective focus range, is the distance between the nearest and farthest objects in a scene that appear acceptably sharp in an image. Although a lensExternal Link can precisely focusExternal Link at only one distance at a time, the decrease in sharpness is gradual on each side of the focused distance, so that within the DOF, the unsharpness is imperceptible under normal viewing conditions.


In some cases, it may be desirable to have the entire image sharp, and a large DOF is appropriate. In other cases, a small DOF may be more effective, emphasizing the subject while de-emphasizing the foreground and background. In cinematographyExternal Link, a large DOF is often called deep focusExternal Link, and a small DOF is often called shallow focusExternal Link.

DOF increases with f-number, as illustrated in the image here. This means that photographs taken with a low f-number will tend to have subjects at one distance in focus, with the rest of the image (nearer and farther elements) out of focus. This is frequently used for nature photographyExternal Link and portraitureExternal Link because background blur (bokehExternal Link) can be aesthetically pleasing and puts the viewer's focus on the main subject in the foreground. The depth of fieldExternal Link of an image produced at a given f-number is dependent on other parameters as well, including the focal lengthExternal Link, the subject distance, and the formatExternal Link of the film or sensor used to capture the image.

5.  Bokeh 

In photographyExternal Linkbokeh (Originally /ˈboʊkɛ/External Link,[1]External Link /ˈboʊkeɪ/External Link boh-kayExternal Link — also sometimes pronounced as /ˈboʊkə/External Link boh-kəExternal Link,[2]External Link Japanese: [boke]External Link) is the aesthetic quality of the blur produced in the out-of-focus parts of an image produced by a lens.[3]External Link[4]External Link[5]External Link Bokeh has been defined as "the way the lens renders out-of-focus points of light".[6]External Link Differences in lens aberrationsExternal Link and apertureExternal Link shape cause some lensExternal Link designs to blur the image in a way that is pleasing to the eye, while others produce blurring that is unpleasant or distracting—"good" and "bad" bokeh, respectively.[7]External Link Bokeh occurs for parts of the scene that lie outside the depth of fieldExternal Link. Photographers sometimes deliberately use a shallow focusExternal Linktechnique to create images with prominent out-of-focus regions.

Bokeh is often most visible around small background highlights, such as specular reflections and light sources, which is why it is often associated with such areas.[7]External Link However, bokeh is not limited to highlights; blur occurs in all out-of-focus regions of the image.

6.   f / 8 and be there

PhotojournalistsExternal Link have a saying, "f/8 and be there", meaning that being on the scene is more important than worrying about technical details. Practically, f/8 allows adequate depth of field and sufficient lens speed for a decent base exposure in most daylight situations.

7.  Human Eye f-number 

Computing the f-number of the human eyeExternal Link involves computing the physical aperture and focal length of the eye. The pupil can be as large as 6–7 mm wide open, which translates into the maximal physical aperture.

The f-number of the human eye varies from about f/8.3 in a very brightly lit place to about f/2.1 in the dark.


October 18, 2015External Link by : full article at Link

1. Advanced Exposure Modes

One of the best things you can do for yourself is get out of “P” mode. Program mode is a decent learning tool and a nice safety net to have in place when you just need to get the shot, but if you are looking to take more control of your camera you will want to look to the advanced exposure modes: aperture priority, shutter priority, and manual.

Aperture priority allows you to set the aperture of your choice, leaving the camera to set shutter speed. This mode is ideal when you need to control depth of field.

Shutter priority is ideal for scenarios in which you want to capture movement; choose a fast shutter speed to freeze motion, or use a slower shutter speed to incorporate motion blur. The camera will take care of setting the aperture.

Manual exposure mode represents the ultimate in creative control, allowing the photographer to set both aperture and shutter speed. This is particularly useful in tricky lighting situations. While shooting in manual may take extra practice to master, you will undoubtedly find it a powerful and valuable skill.

2. Back-Button Focusing

If you learned to use your camera under its default setup, then you’re familiar with the process of pressing the shutter button halfway to initiate metering and autofocus and then pressing it fully to take the shot. It works well enough but there’s another way — perhaps a better way to shoot.

With back button focusExternal Link, you take away the task of focusing from the shutter button and assign it to a button on the rear of your camera, typically the AF-ON/AF-L button or * button.

The advantages of back button focus include reducing (or eliminating) the need to switch your lens to manual focus, easily maintaining continuous focus, and improved stability as you don’t need to half-press anything. You use your thumb to engage and maintain focus while using your index finger to fire off a shot. It may sound unimpressive and it takes some getting used to, but once you become accustomed to back button focus you might never return to the old way.

3. Auto Exposure Lock (AE-Lock)

AE lock does exactly what the term suggests: it locks in a camera’s exposure settings, allowing the photographer to move the camera from one area of a scene to another without the camera changing aperture or shutter speed values. This might come in handy when using the focus and recompose method of portraiture — meter for your subject and the camera locks exposure so that you can recompose for better framing, otherwise you would end up exposing for the background instead of your subject.

4. Spot Metering

By default, cameras are set to matrix, evaluative, or some other similarly named metering modeExternal Link designed to work well in a wide variety of lighting situations. But when things become a bit tricky, such as when working with a backlit subject, spot metering makes it easy for the photographer to get a meter reading from a small portion of the subject rather than taking readings from across the overall scene.

Your camera’s default metering mode is certainly competent, but spot metering provides an extra measure of precision which can, among other things, facilitate greater creativity — such as making silhouettes.

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